Picture of Atomic layer deposition (ALD)
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Technology Description:

The ALD technique builds new surfaces by exploiting self-limiting reactions between highly reactive gas molecules and active sites on surfaces. The self-limiting nature of the process ensures conformal and pin-hole free film on surfaces with complex geometries.  The principle behind the technique is to split a chemical reaction between two compounds into a sequential process, where each compound is allowed to saturate a substrate or support in an alternating manner. This strategy provides a digital control of thickness of the deposited material.

Technical Information:


Deposition chamber accommodating samples up to 200 mm in diameter and 5 mm in height (2D chamber).

Large 3D chamber available, for 3D samples up to 200 mm in diameter and 100 mm in height.

Ozone generator in the instrument.

N2-generator providing >5N N2 directly connected to the ALD.

Thermal ALD deposition.

Plasma-enhanced ALD deposition.

Deposition temperature range: RT – 500 ºC.

Two hot sources available; can be heated to 300 ºC and 500 ºC.

Four RT sources evaporated from own vapor pressure.

QCM (Quartz Crystal Microbalance) available to investigate sub-cycle parameters.

Typical deposition rates at 200 ºC ~1nm/min, with 15 minutes added to each deposition for pumping and venting.

Materials: Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, ZnO:Al.

Sample requirements:

The samples must be able to fit reasonably into the chamber and enable a good flow across the reaction chamber. Otherwise, these deposition methods can be used to deposit on all surfaces – organic or inorganic (i.e. metals, semiconductors, glasses, plastic, paper, etc.). Must be able to withstand vacuum, as process operates at ~1 mbar.


Tool name:
Atomic layer deposition (ALD)
MiNaLab Clean Room
Thin film deposition
TFS 200- 148
Tool rate:

There are 4 precursor sources available at room temperature, in addition to two precursor sources that can be heated to 300 ºC and 500 ºC. The deposition temperature range from room temperature to 500 ºC. H2O is commonly used as an oxidizer, but ozone and plasma-enhanced depositions are also available.

The film recipes readily available as standard processes for the instrument are Al2O3, TiO2, ZnO, and ZnO:Al. These are typically deposited at 200 ºC, using trimethyl-aluminum (TMA), TiCl4, diethyl-zinc (DEZ), but can be deposited down to room temperature, if required. Other processes require some process development. The instrument uses specially designed software from Beneq.


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