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Technology Description:

X-ray diffraction is a powerful tool to investigate the structural properties of a material. The instrument at UiO MiNaLab is a Bruker AXS D8 Discover X-ray diffractometer in reflection geometry with Eulerian cradle (phi-rotation and chi-tilt) and an XYZ translation stage, particularly suitable for the structural characterization of polycrystalline and epitaxial multi-layered thin films at ambient conditions.


  • Phase analysis of thin-films.
  • High resolution rocking curve analysis on (epitaxial) layers on single-crystal substrates.
  • Wafer mapping.
  • Reflectometry on thin layers and substrate materials.
  • Regular Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GIXRD) and in-plane GID on thin-films.
  • Super-lattice and homo-epitaxial thin-film strain analysis.
  • Texture analysis on materials with a preferred orientation of the crystallites.

Technical Information:

2θ range: 5º to 120º.

Metal-ceramic Cu anode X-ray tube:  2.2 kW, Long fine focus, Line, 2 Be windows.

Primary optics: Multilayer X-ray mirror (Goebel mirror), 2-bounce Ge (220) monochromator.

Secondary optics: Parallel plate collimator (with 0.35º angular acceptance) for GIXRD, secondary monochromator: 3-bounce Ge ("point detector" with < 0.001º angular acceptance for ultra-HR), variable slit for maximum sample-source coverage with low-resolution measurements.

Goniometer system and sample stage:  High-precision vertical θ-θ goniometer, 5-axis centric Eulerian cradle, and 5'' vacuum chuck.

Detectors: LynxEye position sensitive detector (PSD-1D & PSD-0D), 192 channels, <106 cps count rate, 75 μm spatial resolution, 0.014ο angular resolution, < 1000 eV (FWHM: 426 eV) at 8 keV. Scintillation counter detector (point detector and variable slit beam paths).

Instrument broadening: (in standard measurement configuration; 0.004 step size and 0.2 mm X-ray beam width, and LynxEye in PSD-1D mode): 2-bounce Ge (220) monochromator: 0.008ο, Goebel mirror: 0.027ο, GIXRD: 0.1ο.

Software Packages and Databases:

Bruker AXS DIFFRAC.EVA for the analysis of X-ray diffraction datasets including visualization, data reduction, phase identification based on the PDF-2 2020 database from the International Center of Diffraction Data (ICDD) and the Crystallography Open Database (COD), determination of crystallinity and crystallite size.

Bruker AXS TOPAS V5 for for quantitative phase analysis, microstructure analysis, and crystal structure analysis.

Bruker AXS DIFFRAC.LEPTOS V7 for the evaluation of X-ray Reflectometry (XRR), High-Resolution X-ray Diffraction (HRXRD), Super-lattice strain analysis.

Tool name:
AXS D8 Discover
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